The other major differences identified in  that must be captured in the SoSE model in order to compare the two management strategies are:
1. SoS Capability/Requirements: SoS requirements start with very high level capability need statements that must be analyzed to determine a set of implementable requirements. In the case of an acknowledged SoS, the SoSE performs this activities. In the case of a collaborative SoS, the systems engineering teams from all of the CSs must work together to determine a set
of implementable requirements.
2. SoSE Capability Analysis Support: When an SoSE team performs the capability analysis and determines an approach for providing the capability, it depends on support from the CS SE teams in conducting the trades and evaluating the feasibility of the various options.
3. Monitoring of Non-SoS Changes: In an acknowledged SoS, the SoSE team must also monitor non-SoS changes being implemented in the CSs to ensure that these changes do not adversely affect the SoS. If changes might adversely affect the SoS, the SoSE team negotiates with the CS(s) to determine alternative approaches that better support SoS objectives and performance.
The next modeling step was to determine ways to capture the major differences described above. The SoS capability/requirements issue is modeled using the COSYSMO Requirements Understanding parameter. The SoSE capability analysis support issue is modeled using the work of  that provides a distribution of COSYSMO effort across the various systems engineering phases.
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To quickly respond to changing business and mission needs, many organizations are integrating new and existing systems with commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products into network-centric, knowledge-based, software-intensive systems of systems (SoS). With this approach, system development processes to define the new architecture, identify sources to either supply or develop the required components, and eventually integrate and test these high level components are evolving and are being referred to as SoS Engineering (SoSE). This research shows that there exist conditions under which investments in SoSE have positive and negative
returns on investment, provides the first quantitative determination of these conditions, and points out directions for future research that would strengthen the results.